Category Archives: technology

SYMC ’11: Saturday Edition

Saturday was (for me) a day of connection & conversation.

The day started with general session #2 – Rick Lawrence reminding us that Jesus is the connecting thread through all of Scripture. Louie Giglio challenging us to think about and answer the question “What kind of culture are you creating?” Louie said he felt that past youth ministry culture was more about cynicism and immaturity than anything else.

What our culture should look like:

  1. Humility (which is simply seeing God)
  2. Honor (we honor because we have been honored)
  3. Jesus (it all comes back to Jesus)

Takeaway quote: “Circumstances are not an excuse for cynicism.” (read that again and think about how it applies to your current situation.)

I sat in the Effective Branding class. A few things to remember when working on branding your ministry are: know who you want to reach, be intentional, be consistent, & keep it simple. <- Much easier said than done! But completely doable no matter what your budget.

I ended up walking out of a class because it wasn’t what I thought it was going to be. I ended up having a great conversation with a friend about transitions in his ministry and some of the similarities between what we are trying to do and what he is trying to do. It was very encouraging.

Sometimes at the conference, I like to eat meals with people I don’t know. Sometimes this turns into a rather quiet meal, but the rest of the time it is great. Today at lunch was one of those great endings. I ate with a couple I didn’t know and started talking about ministry. We had a great conversation about what is going on in their ministry and how to try and handle some of the frustrations they are facing. I walked away encouraged.

I got to talk with a hurting youth worker, too. We talked about some struggles he is facing and how he can better balance his full-time job, his part-time youth ministry position, his family, and any other free time he might have. I hope some of the ideas I shared will help him balance his life and reduce some of his stress.

At the evening general session, I felt I needed to spend time away from the crowd. So I walked out early (fully expecting to rejoin) to simply spend quiet time with God. I had spent most of the first day and a half “doing” the conference and had neglected to take time to simply “be” with God.

Ahh. I needed that!

And the final part of my day was probably my favorite 4 hour stretch of the entire day. I sat in a chair talking with a small handful of friends (two I’ve known for years, 1 I just met), plus a steady stream of bitesize conversations with people as they walked by. We laughed, talked about ministry, laughed, talked about our personal lives, laughed, and I think at some point I almost cried I was laughing so hard. It was such a refreshing reminder of what friendship within the body of Christ looks like. I am so glad I didn’t miss this moment. It was a much needed blessing & a great end to an awesome day.

What will Sunday bring?

Will you be watching for God?

What can you do to hear God speak to you?

Best (Free) Droid Apps for Youth Ministers

Android phones may not have as many apps as the iPhone has, but you don’t need that many when you have quality ones. There are many great apps that will benefit you and your youth ministry, and the ones I’m going to suggest don’t cost anything!

Here are some great, free, apps that will benefit you and your ministry.

Barcode Scanner

Ministry Helps:
Barcode Scanner
This little app is helpful in a couple ways. First, you can scan a book, DVD, or other product and look up its price. When shopping for a youth ministry with a limited budget, this will be very helpful. The other benefit of this app is that you can use it to scan QR codes which can be used to download other apps, contact info, and calendar events. (Use this app in combination with Shopper to find more price information)


There are plenty of Bible apps to get from the Android Market. My suggestion is that you download YouVersion by If you have YouVersion on your desktop, you can sync your reading plan and notes with your phone. This app gives you the ability to find a Scripture quickly, read the Bible when you have a few minutes, or follow along with the sermon when you accidentally leave your Bible in your office.


Dropbox allows you to have access to all of your files (at least the ones you put in your dropbox) while on the go. Put your message notes, list of students going on a trip, or pictures from the past year in your dropbox folder and you have access to them whenever you want, even if you are not in front of your computer.

This app has been recently updated, with some significant improvements. As a youth minister, you will be able to use this app to post updates from your youth trip, comment on students’ pages or quickly update pictures for those not on the trip to view.

*Messaging (already on phone)
Since you have a smart phone that has the ability to use apps, I’m going to assume you have some sort of texting plan. And so do your students and parents – so use this feature. Mine is on the home page because I want to be able to easily access it, so should you.

Google Shopper

Google Shopper

This might seem like a strange app to include on the list, but I have found it to be an invaluable app to have. The ability to scan (works with Barcode Scanner) an item’s UPC and then compare prices, online and in stores, to see what other local stores carry the item will save you time and money. You do not have to drive around looking for the best price or spend hours searching through the internet. Trust me, this app will be worth the price you paid (free) for it and more.


Having this app on your phone can make connecting to youth workers (or the occasional student who actually has a Twitter account) even easier. You can update without sending a text, you can take a picture or video with your phone and then update it to Twitter. During a ministry trip or while at a convention, set up your account to send you notices with specific mentions or from certain people.

Voice Recorder

Voice Recorder
This is great app for turning your phone into a digital recorder. You can use it to practice a message, remember something you want to write down but don’t have paper, or to record your family talking to you while you are gone on a trip. With the ability to send the recording to your computer via email, this is a much cheaper option than a digital recorder.

Youth Ministry Conventions (YSEvents & SYMC2011)

SYMC 2011

If you are going to the National Youth Workers Convention or Simply Youth Ministry Convention, these are must apps. The apps gives you the list of artists and speakers, the schedule, and the YS app gives you access to local info on each city and the ability to watch a life stream for the big room. Or if you are a fan of youth ministry but can’t make it to the conventions, these will give you access into the world of the convention.

Panic/Stress Minimizers:
*Calendar (already on phone)
This the app for Google calendar, which I did not use at all until I got my Droid. Since I have the ability to sync my phone with my desktop, this app allows me to keep much better track of where I need to be and what I should be doing. Plus, the ability to set up reminders (via email or notification) gives me another avenue to reduce the chance I’ll forget to meet a student for lunch.

Grocery IQ

Grocery IQ
Shopping for the high school cookout, but can’t remember how many hot dogs were left after last year? Use Grocery IQ to help make the shopping list and make comments on “actual use” from event to event. This app will also help you keep track of how much you are spending, too. Use with barcode scanner and Google voice to make adding items easier/faster.

Making a house call to that seventh grader, but can’t find his house? Maps, especially using the Navigation feature, will help you find anyplace you are looking for. Not only can you use your phone as a GPS, you will also get “Places” which allows you to search for stores or particular locations based on your location. So when you are on that summer trip and realize the van’s gas gauge isn’t working right anymore, you can find the nearest gas station. *Bonus Use* Make a widget that will always give you directions back to your house, the church, or anywhere else you want.

Trip Master

Trip Master
Need to track your mileage for tax reasons or to turn in for reimbursement, but struggle to always right it down. Trip master can help. You can track your mileage using GPS or by entering your odometer reading (manually or voice). When you need this information, you can export either via email or the SD card.

Weather Channel

*Weather Channel
Is it gonna snow? Will we get drenched with rain? Will it be hot enough to go swimming? I’m sure every youth worker has asked these three questions and many more. Planning events is hard enough, then you add in the weather and it is down-right impossible to know what to do. With this app, you can have instant access to the latest weather from, including the radar map. I use this app at least 5 times a day.


Have a few minutes to wait:
A great way to either waste a few minutes or listen to some new music. If you know what Pandora is, then you know why you need this app on your phone. If you haven’t used the website yet, go ahead and try it out. You might even want to use this app to help introduce your students to new music.


This is basically a smartboard on your phone (well, minus the ability to write to it from your computer). You can use this app to draw quick diagrams or sketches. You can also write small notes, like a student’s birthday. You can save whatever you write as a .jpg then you can send it to yourself or even use it as your desktop background.


Just for Fun:
Bubble (a bubble level)
This app does exactly what you would think it does – it tells you when something is level. Use Bubble when decorating your youth area or office. Plus, if you want to play one of those “Minute to Win It” games that involves a rolling ping pong balls and paper clips, this app will help you get the right angle.

Traffic Jam

Traffic Jam
This is a fun game that will help take your mind off of ministry for just a few minutes. The goal is to get the yellow cab through the traffic to the exit. The levels start out easy and get more difficult as you go.



This Boggle-type game lets you select the words by highlighting them with your finger. Its easy to play, plus you can quit at any time and start back right where you left off.




If you are a blogger, and use WordPress, you will want to include this app on your phone. You can check comments and stats. You can modify posts or write whole new ones.



Angry Birds

Three more apps I probably need to at least mention: GMail, MyVerizon, and Angry Birds

Within each category, the Apps are simply placed alphabetically, not in order of most useful. Apps with an (*) before them are ones I use enough, they are on my home screen. – A Few Thoughts

I started using a few months back because I am constantly trying to find new ways to stay organized. Overall, I really like it and think it would benefit other youth workers. Here are some positives and negatives of TeuxDeux:

1. Simple.
You see five days across the screen, with the ability to scroll forward or backward one day at a time. There is no extra clutter or ads on the page. <- I really like this aspect. 2. Easy to use.
When you want to add an item to your to-do list, simply type it in on the day you want to accomplish it. It will then be added to the list of items for that day. When you finish the task, you simply click on it and it gets crossed off.

3. Ability to add “someday” items.
At the bottom of the page, you can add items to a list of “someday” things you want to do. This is great for adding items that may not need to be done for months or for making a list of ideas or possibilities.

4. Mobile apps in the works.
According to the FAQ’s, there is a mobile app in the works for iPhone and possibly Blackberry. This would make TeuxDeux a better solution for those who are not close to a computer throughout the day.

1. Recurring items.
There is no simple way to add recurring items without manually retyping them into each new day.

2. Only move one day at a time.
Right now, you can only move one day forward and backward, at a time. According to the FAQ’s, there is supposed to be a forthcoming feature allowing the ability to jump to a farther off date more quickly. But until that release, you must simply live in the week or sluggishly click one day at a time.

If you need a way to track what needs to be done, I suggest you try out It’s free and easy to use. But if you are still not sure, check out this video:

TeuxDeux Demo from TeuxDeux on Vimeo.

Every Youth Worker Needs: a receipt scanner

(Youth ministry is not an easy ministry. And in this series, Every Youth Worker Needs:…, I want to highlight a variety of things that might make your ministry a little easier. This ongoing series will include ministry tips, book suggestions, technology helps, and many other nuggets of advice.)

Every Youth Worker Needs: a receipt scanner
Unless you work in a very unique congregation, you have to turn in receipts in order to get reimbursed. This administrative task is always time consuming and boring. Not the reason you became a youth minister at all. But we all know that if we do not do this on a regular basis, monthly at least, then it becomes too overwhelming and then it does not get done. At the end of this train of thought is no reimbursements for items purchased (or what we ministers like to call “donations to the ministry”).

I have recently come across a great little gadget that makes the process of organizing and totaling receipts much simpler. At least that is what the internet and “gift buying” news segment says. As I have watched this product in action and have seen the software to organize the items on the receipts, I have to say I am impressed.

All you have to do is slide the receipt through the scanner, if you have the travel version – which is cheaper and probably all a youth worker needs. Then after all of the receipts are scanned, you go into the program and determine which items go under which categories and which items do not need to be added to the report. Once this is done, you just print off the report and turn it in to the finance committee. (Who will probably be in amazement that a youth worker is so organized and uses spreadsheets.)

Go to this website to see the receipt scanner by neat

(I do not own one of these time saving devices, so consider it on the list of things you can get me if ever you want to get me something.)

Best of ’09: Web Apps

The year 2009 A.D. is almost over. The past 12 months have brought with them many new things; some good, some bad, and some not worth mentioning. I would like to take some time and highlight some of my favorite parts of 2009. I will call this list the “best of ’09” – which simply means that, in my opinion, these are the best items in a certain category. I fully expect you to disagree with some of my choices or to be upset I did not add other items to the list. If you feel this way, please add your “best of ’09” ideas in the comments.

The sixth list will be web apps. This will be a list of my favorite web apps to use. These are the apps I use the most or find the most helpful. This list is in no particular order.

Remember the Milk – a great place to keep track of things you need to accomplish.

TeuxDeux – TeuxDeux is new to me (I’ve only been using it for a few weeks), but I think its going to replace RTM as my favorite “to do” list organizer.

Google Docs – the most used app of 2009 for me.

Evernote – like a giant internet file cabinet, with folders and paper clips.

Dropbox – a great way to share and store a large amount of files (music, movies, and just about any other file you have on your computer). A great backup system, too.

What were your favorite apps of 2009?

Other posts in this series:
Best of ’09 – Music
Best of ’09 – Youth Ministry Books
Best of ’09 – Non-Ministry Books
Best of ’09 – Websites
Best of ’09 – Blog posts
Best of ’09 – Web Apps
Best of ’09 – Ministry Moments
Best of ’09 – Random Favorites

Best of ’09: Websites

The year 2009 A.D. is almost over. The past 12 months have brought with them many new things; some good, some bad, and some not worth mentioning. I would like to take some time and highlight some of my favorite parts of 2009. I will call this list the “best of ’09” – which simply means that, in my opinion, these are the best items in a certain category. I fully expect you to disagree with some of my choices or to be upset I did not add other items to the list. If you feel this way, please add your “best of ’09” ideas in the comments.

The fourth list will be websites. These are the sites I used the most this past year. This list is in no particular order.

Facebook – Now, if I have to explain why I use this site then you must not be involved with youth ministry or on the internet very much. A great site to connect with students, old high school and college friends and family.

Google – I use a lot of online Google applications. My two most used are Docs and gmail. I have a Wave account (I’d love to connect if you are on wave, too), but its fairly new and still in Beta, so I do not get too much use out of it.

Pandora – Simply a great site for listening to music. For me, its a much better alternative to buying a bunch of CD’s or mp3’s.

Twitter – A simple way to stay in touch with friends (and like minded people) all over the world. If you can’t say it in 140 characters, then you don’t need to say it on Twitter.

Blogger – I use Blogger for my blog. I know there are other alternatives, especially WordPress, but I just have not moved to anything yet. Blogger has everything I need. And to be honest, it probably helps me keep the blog fairly simple.

Youth Ministry Websites
YMToday – A great site for finding a wide assortment of youth ministry material. The site is filled with articles, tips, games, and much more. If you are in youth ministry, you need to check this site out. (disclosure – I do have a few articles published on the site)

YMX – Again, this is a great site with an assortment of useful material. The best part of YMX is the forums. The best youth ministry forums out there. A great place to connect and talk about youth ministry (or anything else) with other youth ministry people.

YouthMinBlog – Hear from a wide spectrum of youth ministry voices on a single topic. Each week, the authors discuss a single topic from their own personal perspectives. I was a fan of the site before I became a contributing author, so I’m not saying its a good site because I have articles on it – I’m saying its a good site despite my stuff.

What websites did you use the most in 2009?

Other posts in this series:
Best of ’09 – Music
Best of ’09 – Youth Ministry Books
Best of ’09 – Non-Ministry Books
Best of ’09 – Websites used
Best of ’09 – Blog posts
Best of ’09 – Web Apps
Best of ’09 – Ministry Moments
Best of ’09 – Random Favorites

Learned from Twitter: week ending Sept. 26, 2009

A few highlights from the last few weeks:

1. chadswanzy (Chad Swanzy) linked to a book on mentoring. If you are involved with teenagers, go check it out.

“The Be With Factor” Mentoring Students In Everyday Life is on Google Books

2. Drun (David Runnels) offered some great advice, that we all could stand to hear.

We need people who will encourage us, strenghten us so we can learn from our limitations.

3. BtotheEtotheN (Ben Boles) shared a thought on not letting all of the “noise” around you become overwhelming.

I realized last night, it’s not about the amount of noise in your life but how well you control the volume

4. gavoweb (Gavin Richardson) pointed us to an article on working with parents.

Youth Ministry Today – Parents Are Your Friends

and also this video from AT&T about “future” technology, from 1993.

RT @Alyssa_Milano See the #technology AT&T envisioned 4 our future in commercials done back in 1993 // i remember these

5. DougFields (Doug Fields) has officially stepped down as a pastor at Saddleback. This will mean he’ll be spending more of his time training and encouraging youth workers – that’s a good thing.

My resignation from Saddleback is public & all good. If you’re interested see

6. pattigibbons (Patti Gibbons) reminded me of one of the reasons I love going to the National Youth Workers Convention – getting to meet online friends in person. It’s going to be a great week.

@lilkup you mean I’m finally going to get to meet you?! 🙂

What did you learn from Twitter this week?

Learned from Twitter: week ending September 5, 2009

I took last week off from posting these updates, but this week’s edition is jam packed with great information and resources. Enjoy 🙂

1. snavenel (Len Evans) shared a link that youth ministers need to read – the newest Youth Leader Only from Interlinc.

Savy Youth Ministry: Work Smarter Not Harder by @interlinc

2. Psych_USA (Psych) shared a great picture from an upcoming episode. Looks hilarious.

RT @psychwrites: -From L to R: Jaleel White, Kenan Thompson, Dule Hill, Demord Dann. THIS EPISODE IS AMAZING.

3. gavoweb (Gavin Richardson) shared a link to an article on how to turn your blog ramblings into a published book. And one about putting your youth newsletter on Twitter.

Blog to Book-12 Keys to Posting for Publishing

How to make a Twitter Youth Group Newsletter

4. saraeden (Sara Eden Williams) reminds us that some chances are worth taking in youth ministry. (Especially if you really want to go to the amusement park) 🙂

70% chance of rain but we’re still going to the amusement park. If I were I mom I’d probably say no. But I’m a youthworker and we’re crazy.

5. Writepop (Writepop) thinks we all should know these great opening lines from great novels. I must not pay attention to the first line, because I did not know many of them.

Great list! 100 of the best first lines from novels #writing #books

And he wants to inform us that laptops have been “around” for a long time, since 1937?

Is this the first appearance of a laptop in fiction, all the way back in 1937? – #scifi #comics

6. SYMConference (Simply Youth Ministry Conference) is getting relationally ready for the upcoming conference in Chicago. If you haven’t heard of this conference yet, you need to check it out.

lots of reconnection this week with a whole bunch of #symc volunteers who’ve become like family to us…I seriously love these people!

7. radarradio (Under the Radar) let us know about Amazon’s free download. It only lasts until tomorrow, so hurry!

Here’s link to the FREE DOWNLOAD (1 song your choice) on Amazon:

What did you learn from Twitter this week?

Learned from Twitter: week ending August 1, 2009

A lot of interesting and fun stuff on Twitter this week, and I only see such a small portion of the entire thing.

1. BtotheEtotheN (Ben Boles) shares with us a great moment he was able to share with a former student. This is one of the things that makes a youth minister almost forget the tough days.

putting finishing touches on a wedding ceremony for tomorrow, the bride asked me to do her wedding 7 yrs ago, can’t believe it’s here!

2. wuske (Shawn Wuske) summed up his thoughts about an upcoming lock-in using percentages. The only problem is that we’re left wondering about the 28%.

I’m about to leave for the lock-in. 40% of me puking, 30% chance of me crying, and 2% chance of me getting stabbed.

3. MarkMatlock (Mark Matlock) provided a link to a story that reminds us that some teenagers are really hurting. (The author of the article is not a fan of God, or so it seems)

Parent Of The Year Awards (sadly, not for great parenting) Mom drugs daughter to impregnate her … so sad.

4. HolidayWorld (Holiday World) says that the announcement for their new addition for 2010 will come in 2 weeks. I’m hoping for the addition of a “Groundhog Day Village”, but my gut tells me its going to be a ride in the Thanksgiving section.

Will is telling our staff of directors about our addition for 2010; we’re all sworn to secrecy. Public announcement is August 13.

5. tspencer (Travis Spencer) linked to a story about a lady getting sued for a thoughtless comment on her twitter account. Be mindful of what you say about companies, make sure you aren’t making stuff up.

be careful tweets:…

6. dbeckner (Dennis Beckner) experienced a little role reversal while eating lunch with a former student. This is a situation that youth ministers dream about. 🙂

Ordering lunch with a former student. Realized I forgot my wallet. That’s a switch. Usually I get stuck w/ the bill.

What did you learn from Twitter this week?

An Open Letter to Youth Minister Search Teams

(Though this particular letter is written specifically for youth minister search teams, most of the content will work for any search team.)

Dear Search Team or Committee

I have applied to your open youth minister position and would like to pass on some information from my perspective of the search. Before I begin by giving you some advice to improve your communication with those of us who have applied for your position; allow me to share these thoughts. First off, thank you for being a part of the group who will determine the next minister to the students. I understand you have a big decision ahead of you and it should not be taken lightly. I appreciate all of the extra time, effort and energy you have put into the process (not to mention all of the meetings). One last thing you should know about me – I am praying for you as much as you are praying for me. I pray God gives you wisdom, strength and the ability to discern the right choice.

As a search team moving along in the search process, I would suggest you keep these few things in mind. (In no particular order) You will notice that throughout this list I will use the word “appreciate” often; because none of these ideas are requirements for you, they are just things I would appreciate.

1. Use Technology.
You do not have to waste a stamp. Since we are living in an age of technology, with email and text messaging being more prevalent than snail mail, you do not have to send me a letter. You can send me an email letting me know you are not pursuing me any longer. This is especially true if all of our communication has been done via email.

2. Communicate, communicate, communicate.
At the beginning of the process, I understand it might take months for you to make any sort of decision. I do not expect a weekly email letting me know what number I am on your list of potential youth workers, but I would appreciate notification when the process moves forward. As we move farther down the process, I would appreciate knowing what is going on. As the list of potential youth ministers is narrowed, and I’m still on it, I would expect to be informed on the progress. Even if the search team has not met for a month, I would appreciate knowing.

If I end up being the “chosen” youth minister, I am learning a lot about the way the leadership in the church works. If there is a pattern of poor communication during the search process, I will be more likely to decline your offer to be youth minister. Why would I willingly walk into a situation where communication is not a strength for the leadership? On the other hand, when a search team communicates well during the search process, I will willingly join that team.

3. Honesty is a must!
For me, this is a huge issue. In fact, this might be the biggest issue I consider. And as much as you are deciding if I am the right person for this position, I am deciding if you are the right congregation for me. I do not want to work with a group of people who are not completely honest. When it comes to the search process, do not lie to me. If you are interviewing two other people, tell me. If you are worried that I will not work well with the senior minister, let me know. The worst thing you can do is make me feel that I am the person for the job while I am visiting, when you know that I am not.

There is no reason to drag me along, just to keep me as a “back-up” if the real #1 choice doesn’t work out. If you want to pursue one candidate at a time, then be honest and let me know that at the beginning of the process. I will not be offended if you want to be specific and strategic in your search, even if it means I am not going through the first round of the interview process. I would rather know from the beginning what the search teams intentions are, then to believe a lie about where I stand. Being honest is one of those qualities Christians are supposed to possess, so it needs to be a quality the search team possesses as well.

4. Silence conveys a message.
I have found that when a youth ministry search team is silent for an extended period of time, it usually is not a good sign. Silence from your team conveys one main thing – I (as a youth ministry candidate) am no longer being considered for the position. I understand this is not always the case, but it is the conclusion I will come to when I do not hear anything from a search team for an extended period of time. Silence also conveys the message that your team is not willing to honestly tell me what you think about my ability to minister to the students in your congregation.

As I am patiently waiting to hear back from your committee, I would appreciate an occasional (at the least) update. Even if the search team is hesitant to have a difficult discussion with one of the candidates that is no reason to avoid communication. Some conversations will be difficult, but you should have known that when you signed up to be on the team – even in the church the hiring process is difficult. You need to know that I am not going to talk/think negatively about you if you phone and tell me I am not the right person for the position. I will respect your team and appreciate the manner in which you handled the situation.

If you are silent after I have already interviewed, I believe one of two things is happening: you are calling another candidate back and you are hoping if that candidate says “no” then I’ll still be willing to come for another interview. Or you do not know how to tell me that I am not the right candidate and hope I’ll find another position before you have to tell me.

5. Respect my time.
This comment goes along with the silence one – as you are going through your process remember that the candidates are waiting to hear back from you. Just because you only want to meet once a month does not make it appropriate to only contact the applicants every other time you meet. Do not drag out the process for any candidate longer than necessary – as soon as you know a candidate is not going to be the right person for the ministry the best thing you can do is let them know.

We, the candidates, are not just waiting to hear back about a job. We are waiting to hear back about the city we will live in, the church our family will attend, and the people we will become friends with. Taking on a new youth ministry position entails all of our life and family. So, as you are considering your decision, please keep this in mind as you keep us abreast of the situation. And please try to meet as a group more than once a month.

Thank you for reading this letter. I hope it helps you have a better understanding of what the youth minister candidates are feeling and thinking during this search process. I pray God gives you wisdom and discernment in your search and you find the right minister for the students.


A youth minister candidate

ps. I would like to suggest two books for you to read, if you have time. The first book is “Inside The Mind Of Youth Pastors” by Mark Riddle, published by Youth Specialties. The second book is “Sustainable Youth Ministry” by Mark DeVries, published by InterVarsity Press. Both of these books contain great insight into a better understanding what youth ministry is all about and how a congregation can help it succeed.